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Tag: DNA Repair

Understanding the Varied Symptoms of DNA Damage: A Comprehensive Guide

DNA damage is a complex topic that affects the health and well-being of individuals. This comprehensive guide will explore the basics of DNA damage, the different types of DNA damage, how to recognize the symptoms, and the science behind DNA repair mechanisms. By understanding these varied symptoms, you can gain insights into the potential impacts of DNA damage on your overall health.

An image of a DNA, showing its double-helix pattern

“Biology is the most powerful technology ever created. DNA is software, protein are hardware, cells are factories.“ 

Arvind Gupta, Inventor (Health/Medical Technology) and Author

The Basics of DNA Damage

What is DNA Damage?

DNA damage refers to any alteration or modification to the structure of DNA molecules within cells. It can occur due to various factors, such as exposure to harmful chemicals, radiation, or errors during DNA replication. When DNA is damaged, it can impact the functioning and stability of cells, potentially leading to health issues.

The Role of DNA in the Body

DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries the genetic information of living organisms. It acts as a blueprint for the development, growth, and maintenance of cells and tissues. DNA is composed of nucleotides and is organized into chromosomes within the nucleus of cells.

Every living organism, from the tiniest microbe to the largest mammal, relies on the integrity of its DNA for survival and proper functioning. The intricate structure of DNA allows it to store and transmit genetic information from one generation to the next, ensuring the continuity of life. However, damage to DNA can disrupt the accurate transmission of this genetic information, leading to various symptoms and health complications. Understanding the role of DNA in the body helps you grasp the significance of protecting it from such damage.

Common Causes of DNA Damage

Numerous factors can lead to DNA damage, including:

  • Exposure to harmful chemicals such as tobacco smoke, pesticides, and industrial pollutants.
  • Ionizing radiation from sources like X-rays, gamma rays, and radioactive materials.
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds.
  • Genetic predisposition to DNA repair deficiencies.
  • Errors during DNA replication or failure of DNA repair mechanisms.

These causes of DNA damage can profoundly affect individuals’ health and well-being. For example, exposure to harmful chemicals can introduce mutations in DNA, leading to the development of cancer. Similarly, UV radiation from the sun can cause DNA damage in skin cells, increasing the risk of skin cancer.

It is important to note that the human body has evolved intricate mechanisms to repair DNA damage. However, these repair mechanisms are not foolproof and can sometimes fail, allowing damaged DNA to persist and potentially cause harm.

Understanding these common causes of DNA damage is crucial in taking preventive measures and minimizing the risk. By being aware of the factors that can harm your DNA, you can make informed choices to protect yourself and promote a healthier future.

Different Types of DNA Damage

Single-Strand Breaks

A single-strand break occurs when one of the two strands of DNA is disrupted. This type of damage can result from exposure to radiation, oxidative stress, or chemical agents. Single-strand breaks can be repaired by specific DNA repair mechanisms, ensuring the integrity of the DNA sequence.

When DNA is exposed to ionizing radiation, such as X-rays or gamma rays, it can cause ionization of the atoms within the DNA molecule. This ionization can lead to the formation of free radicals, highly reactive molecules that can damage DNA. These free radicals can break the sugar-phosphate backbone of one strand of the DNA double helix, resulting in a single-strand break.

Oxidative stress, which occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the body’s ability to detoxify them, can also cause single-strand breaks. ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals, can react with the DNA molecule and cause damage, including the formation of single-strand breaks.

Chemical agents, such as certain chemotherapy drugs or environmental pollutants, can also induce single-strand breaks in DNA. These agents can directly damage the DNA molecule or interfere with the DNA replication process, leading to the formation of single-strand breaks.

Fortunately, cells have specific DNA repair mechanisms to deal with single-strand breaks. One of the most common repair pathways is the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In BER, specialized enzymes recognize and remove the damaged DNA base, creating a gap in the DNA strand. This gap is then filled with the correct nucleotide sequence by other enzymes, restoring the integrity of the DNA.

Double-Strand Breaks

Double-strand breaks are considered more severe than single-strand breaks as they affect both strands of DNA. This type of damage can occur due to exposure to ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, or errors during DNA replication. Double-strand breaks require intricate repair processes to maintain the stability of the genome.

Ionizing radiation, such as high-energy X-rays or radioactive particles, can directly cause double-strand breaks by breaking both strands of the DNA double helix. These breaks can be induced by the ionization of atoms within the DNA molecule or by the formation of free radicals, similar to single-strand breaks.

Certain chemicals, such as some chemotherapy drugs or environmental toxins, can also cause double-strand breaks. These chemicals can directly damage the DNA molecule or interfere with the DNA replication process, leading to the formation of double-strand breaks.

Errors during DNA replication can also result in the formation of double-strand breaks. DNA replication is a highly complex process, and sometimes mistakes can occur. If these mistakes are not corrected, they can lead to the formation of double-strand breaks.

Repairing double-strand breaks is crucial for maintaining the stability of the genome. One of the main repair pathways for double-strand breaks is called homologous recombination (HR). In HR, the intact DNA strand from the sister chromatid or homologous chromosome is used as a template to repair the broken DNA strands. This process requires a series of enzymatic steps and is tightly regulated to ensure accurate repair.

DNA is the programming of you and I.

DNA Crosslinks

DNA crosslinks refer to the formation of covalent bonds between DNA strands or DNA molecules and other cellular components. They can be induced by exposure to chemicals or reactive oxygen species. DNA crosslinks can hinder DNA replication and transcription, leading to cellular dysfunction.

Chemicals, such as certain anticancer drugs or environmental toxins, can form covalent bonds with DNA, resulting in DNA crosslinks. These crosslinks can physically block the progression of DNA replication or transcription machinery, preventing the accurate duplication or expression of genetic information.

Reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals, can also induce DNA crosslinks. These reactive molecules can react with the DNA molecule and form covalent bonds between DNA strands or between DNA and other cellular components, impairing normal DNA functions.

Cells have evolved various mechanisms to repair DNA crosslinks. One of the repair pathways is the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. In NER, specialized enzymes recognize and remove the DNA crosslinks, creating a gap in the DNA strand. This gap is then filled with the correct nucleotide sequence by other enzymes, restoring the integrity of the DNA.

Recognizing the Symptoms of DNA Damage

Physical Symptoms

Physical symptoms of DNA damage can manifest in different ways, depending on the affected cells and tissues. Some common physical symptoms include:

  • Skin abnormalities include premature aging, sun sensitivity, and increased risk of skin cancer due to UV-induced damage.
  • Neurological symptoms like cognitive decline, memory loss, and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Recurrent infections and impaired immune function due to DNA damage in immune cells.

If you experience any of these physical symptoms, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and guidance.

Cellular Symptoms

At the cellular level, DNA damage can lead to dysfunctional cell processes and impairments in cellular functions. This can result in various cellular symptoms, including:

  • Cell cycle abnormalities, such as uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation.
  • Increased levels of DNA mutations increase the risk of cancer development.
  • Activation of cellular stress responses and DNA repair pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis.
  • Potential cell death if the damage exceeds the repair capacity, leading to tissue dysfunction.

These cellular symptoms highlight the importance of maintaining DNA integrity to ensure proper cellular function and overall health.

Long-Term Health Implications

DNA damage can have significant long-term health implications. If left unaddressed, it can contribute to the development of various diseases, including:

  • Cancer: Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage can lead to the accumulation of mutations, which can trigger the uncontrolled growth of cells, ultimately resulting in cancer.
  • Aging-related diseases: DNA damage is one of the major causes of aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Reproductive disorders: DNA damage in germ cells can result in infertility, genetic disorders in offspring, and pregnancy complications.

Understanding the long-term health implications of DNA damage can emphasize the importance of preventive measures and early detection for better health outcomes.

The Science Behind DNA Repair Mechanisms

The Importance of DNA Repair

DNA repair mechanisms play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the genome. They are responsible for detecting and correcting DNA damage to prevent the accumulation of mutations and maintain the stability of genetic information. Proper functioning of DNA repair mechanisms is essential for cellular health and overall well-being.

Natural DNA Repair Processes

There are several natural DNA repair processes that cells utilize to repair damaged DNA. These include:

  1. Base excision repair (BER): This repair mechanism targets DNA damage caused by oxidative stress or chemical modifications. It removes the damaged base and replaces it with a correct one.
  2. Nucleotide excision repair (NER): NER repairs bulky DNA lesions induced by environmental agents such as UV radiation or certain chemicals. It removes the damaged portion of DNA and synthesizes a new, intact strand.
  3. Mismatch repair (MMR): MMR corrects errors that occur during DNA replication, ensuring the accuracy of the genetic code.
  4. Double-strand break repair (DSBR): DSBR mechanisms, including non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), repair double-strand breaks by joining the broken ends or using a homologous template.

These natural DNA repair processes work together to address various types of DNA damage, ensuring genomic stability and minimizing the potential detrimental effects.

Limitations and Failures of DNA Repair

While DNA repair mechanisms are highly efficient, they are not infallible. Factors such as the extent and complexity of DNA damage, genetic variations, and aging can affect the efficiency and effectiveness of DNA repair processes. In some cases, the repair mechanisms may fail, leading to the accumulation of DNA damage and potential health consequences. Understanding these limitations and failures is important to develop strategies for enhancing DNA repair capacity and minimizing the risk of disease development.

Conclusion

In conclusion, understanding the varied symptoms of DNA damage is crucial for assessing its impact on your health. By grasping the basics of DNA damage, recognizing its varied symptoms, and comprehending the underlying science of DNA repair mechanisms, you can take proactive steps to mitigate risks and promote overall well-being. Through ongoing research and advancements in the field, scientists can continue to deepen an understanding of DNA damage, repair mechanisms, and their implications for therapeutic interventions and disease prevention. Feel better and improve organ function with Accuri® Vitality Boost, a NAD supplement. 

Lastly, if you’re interested in going deeper on health-related content, here are a few of our recent posts that you may want to read:

  1. 9 Powerful Benefits of Optimizing Your NAD
  2. What Does Peak Performance Look Like? 
  3. Andrew Huberman is Wrong About NAD, NMN & Longevity
  4. Why Optimized, Precision Medicine is the Future

P.S. Want to boost your intracellular NAD levels? Try a 2 week trial of our Jinfiniti Vitality Boost (do 2 scoops per day), use the discount code welcome20 if you’re a new customer for 20% off your 1st order)

The Role and Benefits of NAD Supplements in Cellular Health

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in NAD supplements and their potential benefits for cellular health. NAD, which stands for Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, is a coenzyme found in every cell of our bodies. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and regulation of cellular aging.

ALT TXT IMG: NAD+ biosynthesis pathway

Understanding NAD Supplements

What are NAD Supplements?

NAD supplements are dietary supplements that aim to support and enhance the levels of NAD in the body. These supplements typically contain compounds, such as nicotinamide riboside (NR) or nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which can be converted into NAD once ingested.

The Biological Role of NAD

NAD is involved in hundreds of enzymatic reactions in the body and is essential for the proper functioning of various physiological processes. One of its primary roles is participating in cellular energy production through processes like glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. NAD serves as a coenzyme for enzymes involved in these pathways, allowing them to facilitate the production of ATP, the energy currency of cells.

Beyond its energy-related functions, NAD also plays a critical role in DNA repair. It is a cofactor for enzymes known as sirtuins, which are involved in DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic stability. By facilitating DNA repair, NAD helps to protect the integrity of genetic material and prevent the accumulation of mutations.

Moreover, NAD is involved in regulating various aspects of cellular metabolism. It acts as a signaling molecule, influencing the activity of proteins involved in processes like gene expression, cell survival, and stress response. NAD-dependent signaling pathways are crucial in maintaining cellular homeostasis and adapting to environmental changes.

Furthermore, NAD is closely linked to the aging process. As you age, the levels of NAD in your body naturally decline, leading to a decline in cellular function and an increased risk of age-related diseases. By supplementing with NAD precursors like NR or NMN, you are believed to replenish NAD levels and potentially slow down the aging process.

“Only 20 percent of our longevity is genetically determined. The rest is what we do, how we live our lives and increasingly the molecules that we take. It’s not the loss of our DNA that causes aging, it’s the problems in reading the information, the epigenetic noise.” – Dr. David Sinclair, Leading Anti-Aging Researcher, Professor at Harvard Medical & Author of Lifespan

Research in animal models has shown promising results, with NAD supplementation demonstrating potential benefits for various age-related conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of NAD supplements in humans and their long-term safety.

In conclusion, NAD supplements are dietary supplements that aim to support and enhance the levels of NAD in the body. NAD is crucial in cellular energy production, DNA repair, and cellular metabolism. By supplementing with NAD precursors, it is believed that you can potentially slow down the aging process and improve overall health. 

The Connection Between NAD and Cellular Health

When it comes to maintaining optimal cellular health, one must recognize the crucial role played by NAD. NAD, short for Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, is a coenzyme that is present in all living cells. It is involved in many cellular processes, making it a key player in overall cellular function.

NAD and Cellular Energy Production

Energy production is essential for the proper function of all cells in the body. NAD acts as a key player in the production of ATP, the energy molecule that fuels various cellular processes. By supporting NAD levels, NAD supplements have the potential to enhance cellular energy production, leading to improved overall cellular health and function.

When NAD levels are optimal, cells can efficiently convert nutrients into ATP through a process called cellular respiration. This process occurs in the mitochondria, often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell. NAD is a crucial component of the electron transport chain, a series of reactions that generate ATP. By ensuring an adequate supply of NAD, cells can produce energy more efficiently, allowing them to carry out their functions effectively.

Furthermore, NAD also plays a role in regulating the activity of enzymes involved in glycolysis, the initial step in energy production. By modulating these enzymes’ activity, NAD helps maintain a balanced energy metabolism, ensuring that cells have the energy they need to perform their tasks optimally.

NAD’s Role in DNA Repair

DNA damage is an ongoing process that occurs due to various factors, including environmental stressors, metabolic byproducts, and natural aging. DNA damage can accumulate without proper repair mechanisms and lead to detrimental effects on cellular health. This is where NAD comes into play.

NAD is vital for maintaining the activity of sirtuins, a class of proteins that play a crucial role in repairing DNA damage and preserving genomic stability. Sirtuins are involved in a process called DNA repair, where they identify and correct errors in the DNA sequence. By supporting DNA repair mechanisms, NAD supplements have the potential to promote healthy cell function and slow down the aging process.

Moreover, NAD also influences the activity of other enzymes involved in DNA repair, such as PARPs (Poly ADP-ribose polymerases). These enzymes use NAD as a substrate to attach ADP-ribose units to proteins, facilitating the repair of DNA damage. By providing an ample supply of NAD, cells can ensure that these repair processes can occur efficiently, maintaining the integrity of the genetic material.

Additionally, NAD’s involvement in DNA repair extends beyond its direct role in enzymatic reactions. Studies have shown that NAD levels can influence gene expression in DNA repair pathways. By modulating gene expression, NAD can regulate the overall efficiency of DNA repair mechanisms, further contributing to cellular health.

In conclusion, NAD plays a vital role in cellular energy production and DNA repair, two essential processes for maintaining optimal cellular health. By supporting NAD levels through supplementation, individuals can potentially enhance their cellular energy production and promote healthy DNA repair mechanisms. This, in turn, can positively impact overall cellular function and contribute to improved health and well-being.

ALT TXT IMG: DNA Strings

The Potential Benefits of NAD Supplements

NAD supplements have gained significant attention in recent years due to their potential benefits in various aspects of health and well-being. Here are some of the ways in which NAD supplements may contribute to enhancing cellular longevity and boosting metabolic health.

Enhancing Cellular Longevity

Cellular aging is a complex process influenced by various factors, including oxidative stress, DNA damage, and declining mitochondrial function. As you age, your cells become more susceptible to these age-related processes, leading to a decline in overall cellular health.

However, NAD supplements have been proposed as a potential strategy to combat these age-related processes. NAD, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a coenzyme involved in cellular energy production and DNA repair mechanisms.

By supporting energy production, NAD supplements may help cells maintain their optimal function and vitality. Additionally, NAD is crucial for DNA repair and essential for maintaining your genetic material’s integrity. By enhancing DNA repair mechanisms, NAD supplements may contribute to overall cellular health and longevity.

Furthermore, NAD supplements have been shown to activate sirtuins, a group of proteins involved in regulating cellular processes such as metabolism, inflammation, and stress response. Activation of sirtuins has been linked to increased lifespan and improved healthspan in various organisms.

Therefore, by enhancing cellular health and longevity, NAD supplements hold promise as a potential strategy for promoting healthy aging and overall well-being.

Boosting Metabolic Health

Metabolism is crucial in maintaining a healthy weight and preventing metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. NAD, as a key player in cellular metabolism, is involved in regulating metabolic pathways.

One of the essential roles of NAD in metabolism is its involvement in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. By supporting NAD levels, NAD supplements have the potential to optimize metabolic function and promote overall metabolic health.

Furthermore, NAD is involved in regulating insulin secretion and sensitivity, which are critical factors in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. By supporting NAD levels, NAD supplements may help regulate insulin function and contribute to improved glucose metabolism.

Moreover, NAD has been shown to activate enzymes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, the process of forming new mitochondria. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells and are responsible for energy production. NAD supplements may enhance cellular energy production and overall metabolic function by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis.

Overall, NAD supplements hold promise as a potential strategy for boosting metabolic health and optimizing various aspects of metabolism, including carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, insulin function, and mitochondrial biogenesis.

Safety and Efficacy of NAD Supplements

When considering NAD supplements, following the recommended dosage guidelines provided by the manufacturer or healthcare professional is essential. Dosage recommendations may vary depending on the specific NAD precursor compound used and individual factors such as age and health status. It is always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

NAD, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It is crucial in various biological processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and cellular communication. Research suggests that NAD supplementation may have several potential benefits. It has been shown to support mitochondrial function, which produces energy in our cells. NAD supplements may help improve overall energy levels and combat fatigue by enhancing mitochondrial function.

In addition to its role in energy production, NAD is involved in DNA repair mechanisms. By promoting DNA repair, NAD supplements may help protect against DNA damage caused by factors such as oxidative stress and aging. This potential benefit has sparked interest in NAD supplementation for its potential anti-aging effects.

Furthermore, NAD is a key regulator of sirtuins, a family of proteins involved in various cellular processes, including gene expression, inflammation, and metabolism. By activating sirtuins, NAD supplements may help regulate these processes and potentially contribute to improved overall health and longevity.

Potential Side Effects and Precautions

While NAD supplements are generally considered safe for most people, it is essential to be aware of potential side effects and precautions. Some individuals may experience mild digestive issues, such as nausea or diarrhea when first starting NAD supplements. These symptoms are usually temporary and subside as the body adjusts to the supplement.

It is also important to note that NAD supplements should not be used as a substitute for a healthy lifestyle or medical treatment. They should be seen as a complementary approach to overall well-being. If you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medications, it is crucial to consult with your healthcare professional before incorporating NAD supplements into your routine.

Additionally, as with any supplement, it is crucial to source NAD supplements from reputable manufacturers like Jinfiniti Precision Medicine, Inc. to ensure product quality and safety. Look for products that have undergone third-party testing and are certified by reputable organizations. This will help ensure that you are getting a reliable and effective product.

In conclusion, NAD supplements have gained attention for their potential benefits in supporting energy production, DNA repair, and overall cellular health. However, it is important to follow the recommended dosage guidelines and consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen. By being aware of potential side effects and precautions and sourcing NAD supplements from reputable manufacturers, you can make informed decisions about incorporating them into your wellness routine.

The Future of NAD Supplements in Health and Wellness

Ongoing Research and Development

The field of NAD research is constantly evolving, with ongoing studies exploring new aspects of NAD’s functions and potential benefits. Scientists are continuing to investigate the impact of NAD supplementation on various health conditions, including age-related diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders. This ongoing research holds promising prospects for the future of NAD supplements and their role in promoting health and wellness.

NAD Supplements and Personalized Medicine

As an understanding of NAD’s role in cellular health and disease advances, the field of personalized medicine may benefit from incorporating NAD measurements and interventions. By assessing an individual’s NAD levels and tailoring supplement recommendations accordingly, healthcare professionals may be able to optimize health outcomes and mitigate disease risks on an individualized basis.

In conclusion, NAD supplements have emerged as an exciting research area in cellular health. By supporting NAD levels, these supplements have the potential to enhance cellular energy production, promote DNA repair mechanisms, and ultimately contribute to overall health and well-being. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen to ensure safety and suitability for individual needs. As ongoing research continues to shed light on NAD’s functions and potential benefits, the future of NAD supplements in health and wellness holds promising prospects. Are you deficient in NAD? Measure your NAD levels with the Intracellular NAD® Test

Lastly, if you’re interested in going deeper on health-related content, here are a few of our recent posts that you may want to read:

  1. Why Optimized, Precision Medicine is the Future
  2. Andrew Huberman is Wrong About NAD, NMN & Longevity
  3. What Does Peak Performance Look Like? 
  4. 9 Powerful Benefits of Optimizing Your NAD

P.S. Want to boost your intracellular NAD levels? Try a 2 week trial of our Jinfiniti Vitality Boost (do 2 scoops per day), use the discount code welcome20 if you’re a new customer for 20% off your 1st order).

NAD and age-related diseases

What is NAD?

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a necessary molecule for maintaining life and is found in every cell. NAD is involved in redox reactions and comes in two forms: NAD+ and NADH. Insufficient NAD is involved in five out of the nine hallmarks of aging and can increase the risks of age-related diseases such as cancer, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Energy metabolism

NAD is necessary for major energy pathways such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. All of these pathways produce the body’s energy currency: ATP. When NAD is not available, cells can’t produce enough ATP to sustain important biological processes which leads to suboptimal health.

Sirtuins: aging regulators

Sirtuins are enzymes that require NAD+ to function and are involved in five hallmarks of aging. When there are healthy amounts of sirtuins and NAD+ cofactors, they inhibit the hallmarks: epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, deregegulated nutrient sensing, genomic instability, and cellular senescence.

DNA repair

The PARP enzymes use NAD to repair DNA to prevent genomic instability, a hallmark of aging.

The sirtuin enzymes also help prevent genomic instability by helping FOXO transcription factors to bind to DNA and express antioxidant enzymes to protect cells from oxidative stress.

NAD deficiency accelerates the hallmarks of aging

When the body does not have enough NAD, all of the above roles are harmed. Without enough NAD, genomic instability, epigenetic alterations, deregulated nutrient sensing, and poor energy metabolism hurt wellness and promote aging. NAD declines with age because it is consumed by enzymes, mainly CD38.

Hallmarks of aging affected by NAD
Hallmark Description NAD’s role
Epigenetic alteration Each of you cells share the same DNA. Epigenetics is what decides which pieces of DNA to use to make proteins and is the reason we have different cell types. With age, our cells become confused and lose some of their ability to function properly within their cell types.
Loss of proteostasis Proteostasis is the ability of a cell to make stable, functioning proteins. As we age, some cells lose the ability to do this well. Instead, they make ineffective or harmful proteins.
Mitochondrial dysfunction Mitochondria generate energy in the form of the ATP molecule via the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. These processes are called respiration and produce free radicals that can harm the cell in large numbers. As we age our mitochondria become dysfunctional by producing less ATP and more free radicals.
Senescence Senescent cells are those that stop dividing. This is a good mechanism for preventing cancer, but it can be harmful because it causes cells to release inflammatory molecules into the body and contribute to chronic inflammation.
Deregulated nutrient sensing Cells respond to the availability of nutrients in the diet through different pathways. When nutrient sensing is deregulated, cells don’t respond well to nutrients which can lead to conditions such as insulin insensitivity.

What are the risk factors for NAD deficiency?

NAD declines with age and contributes to disease

Obesity is also a risk factor for NAD depletion, possibly because it contributes to chronic inflammation, which causes DNA damage, requires NAD+-consuming PARP hyperactivation.

NAD deficiency is a common central pathological factor of a number of diseases and aging: cerebral ischemia, myocardial ischemia, diabetes, cancer, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases, and other age-associated pathologies.

How can you optimize your NAD levels?

Supplementation

NAD precursor supplements such as NR and NMN have been shown to raise NAD levels in humans.

Diet and exercise

Obesity is associated with reduced expression of NAD and sirtuins, whereas weight loss increases NAD and sirtuin expression.

Exercise has been shown to increase activity of an NAD-synthesizing enzyme called NAMPT.

NAD pathways
Reprinted from “Srivastava S. Emerging therapeutic roles for NAD(+) metabolism in mitochondrial and age-related disorders. Clin Transl Med. 2016;5(1):25. doi:10.1186/s40169-016-0104-7”

Lastly, if you’re interested in going deeper on health-related content, here are a few of our recent posts that you may want to read:

  1. Why Optimized, Precision Medicine is the Future
  2. What Does Peak Performance Look Like? 
  3. 9 Powerful Benefits of Optimizing Your NAD
  4. Andrew Huberman is Wrong About NAD, NMN & Longevity

P.S. Want to boost your intracellular NAD levels? Try a 2 week trial of our Jinfiniti Vitality Boost (do 2 scoops per day), use the discount code welcome20 if you’re a new customer for 20% off your 1st order).