C-reactive protein (CRP) is a substance that the liver makes in response to inflammation. The C-reactive protein test measures the amount of this protein in the blood. The test can help to diagnose acute and chronic conditions that cause inflammation. A wide variety of inflammatory conditions can cause elevated CRP levels, including infection, organ and...
November 25, 2020
Unlike the “bad” low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL) which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL is the “good” cholesterol that removes extra cholesterol from cells and reduces plaque buildup in your arteries and carries extra cholesterol back to your liver where it is expelled. The good balance between HDL and LDL helps reduce your risk of...
November 25, 2020


Glycation is the non-enzymatic bonding of a sugar molecule to a protein or lipid molecule. Glycated serum proteins (GSP) are proteins that have undergone glycation and circulate in the blood. The vast majority (90%) of GSP consists of glycated albumin. GSP concentration is an indication of the average amount of glucose (glycemia) in the blood...
November 25, 2020


Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, also known as SGPT) is one of the most widely tested liver enzymes. The other one is aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT). In healthy persons, these liver enzymes are predominantly contained within liver cells and to a lesser degree in the muscle cells. When the liver is injured or damaged, liver cells...
November 25, 2020


Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in several tissues including liver, bone, intestine, kidney, placenta and white blood cells. Damage to these tissues causes the release of ALP into the bloodstream. ALP in blood of healthy adults is mainly from the liver, with most of the rest coming from bones. Elevated blood ALP is...
November 25, 2020
Albumin is synthesized by the liver and is the most abundant protein in the blood. It is essential for the body to both maintain growth and repair tissues. In healthy people, a blood albumin level of less than 3.5 g/dl is considered deficient. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines, from the National Kidney Foundation,...
November 25, 2020

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